Pdf a comparison of wear rates of ball mill grinding media, a comparison of wear rates of ball mill grinding journal of mining and metallurgy 52 a 1 2016 1 10 corresponding author ic average volume of a ball mill
Ball mills are generally used to grind material 14 inch and finer down to the particle size of 20 to 75 microns to achieve a reasonable efficiency with ball mills they must be operated in a closed system with oversize material continuously being recirculated back into the mill to be reduced
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24 effect of ball size 29 241 empirical approaches 29 242 probabilistic approaches 33 25 abnormal breakage 36 26 effect of ball mixture 37 261 ball size distribution in tumbling mills 37 262 milling performance of a ball size distribution 40 27 summary 41 chapter 3
The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media the length of the cylindrical shell is usually 115 times the shell diameter figure 811the feed can be dry with less than 3 moisture to minimize ball coating or slurry containing 2040 water by weight
Optimization of mill performance by using online ball and pulp measurements by b clermont and b de haas synopsis ball mills are usually the largest consumers of energy within a mineral concentrator comminution is responsible for 50 of the total mineral processing cost in todays global markets expanding mining groups are trying
A total apparent volumetric charge filling 8211 including balls and excess slurry on top of the ball charge, plus the interstitial voids in between the balls 8211 expressed as a percentage of the net internal mill volume inside liners.
B overflow discharge mills operating at low ball fillings 8211 slurry may accumulate on top of the ball charge causing, the total charge filling level to be higher than the ball filling level. grate discharge mills will not face this issue.
C this value represents the volumetric fractional filling of the voids in between the balls by the retained slurry in the mill charge. as defined, this value should never exceed 100, but in some cases 8211 particularly in grate discharge mills 8211 it could be lower than 100. note that this interstitial slurry does not include the overfilling slurry derived from the difference between the charge and ball filling.
D represents the so-called dynamic angle of repose or lift angle adopted during steady operation by the top surface of the mill charge 8220the kidney8221 with respect to the horizontal. a reasonable default value for this angle is 32, but may be easily 8220tuned8221 to specific applications against any available actual power data.
The first step in mill design is to determine the power needed to produce the desired grind in the chosen ore. the most used equation, for this purpose, is the empirical bond equation bond, 1960, 1961 rowland and kjos, 1978.
In this equation, e is the specific energy required for the grind, and f80 and p80 are the sizes in micrometers that 80 of the weight passes of the mill feed and product respectively. the parameter wi, known as the work index of the ore, is obtained from batch bench tests first devised by bond 1961. the power calculated on using equation 1, bond, 1961 rowland and kjos, 1978, relates to
1 rod milling 8211 a rod mill with a diameter of 2.44 meters, inside new liners, grinding wet in open circuit. 2 ball milling 8211 a ball mill with a diameter of 2.44 meters, inside new liners, grinding wet in open circuit.
When the grinding conditions differ from these specified conditions, efficiency factors rowland and kjos, 1978 have to be used in conjunction with equation 1. in general, therefore, the required mill power is calculated using the following equation
Where n is the number of efficiency factors, efi, used and fo is the feed rate of new ore to the mill. the power calculated from equation 2 can be looked up in published tables rowland and kjos, 1978 and the correct mill size and type can be selected.
Ball mills have been the primary piece of machinery in traditional hard rock circuits for 100 years. they are proven workhorses, with discharge mesh sizes from 40m to lt200m. use of a ball mill is the best choice when long term, stationary milling can be justified by an operation.