Later stone age got earlier start in south africa than thought
The later stone age emerged in south africa more than 20,000 years earlier than previously believed -- about the same time humans were migrating from africa to the european continent, says a new international study led by the university of colorado boulder.
The study shows the onset of the later stone age in south africa likely began some 44,000 to 42,000 years ago, said paola villa, a curator at the university of colorado museum of natural history and lead study author. the new dates are based on the use of precisely calibrated radiocarbon dates linked to organic artifacts found at border cave in the lebombo mountains on the border of south africa and swaziland containing evidence of hominid occupation going back 200,000 years.
The later stone age is synonymous to many archaeologists with the upper paleolithic period, when modern humans moved from africa into europe roughly 45,000 years ago and spread rapidly, displacing and eventually driving neanderthals to extinction. the timing of the technological innovations and changes in the later stone age in south africa are comparable to that of the upper paleolithic, said villa.
Our research proves that the later stone age emerged in south africa far earlier than has been believed and occurred at about the same time as the arrival of modern humans in europe, said villa. but differences in technology and culture between the two areas are very strong, showing the people of the two regions chose very different paths to the evolution of technology and society.
A companion paper published in pnas and led by derrico reports on organic materials found at border cave dating to the later stone age, an indication that the san hunter-gatherer culture first thought to have begun about 20,000 years ago in the region probably emerged as early as 44,000 years ago, said villa.
Organic artifact assemblages at border cave dating to the later stone age included ostrich eggshell beads, thin bone arrowhead points, wooden digging sticks, a gummy substance called pitch that was used to haft, or attach, bone and stone blades to shafts and a lump of beeswax likely used for hafting. the assemblage also included worked tusks of members of the pig family, which likely were used to plane wood, and notched bones that may have been used for counting.
A wooden digging stick from border cave dated to about 40,000 years ago was found in association with bored but broken stones likely used to weight such sticks. the sticks and stone weights are similar to digging implements used by women of the prehistoric san hunter-gatherer culture in the region to unearth bulbs and termite larvae, a practice that continued into historic times, said villa. these digging sticks from border cave are the oldest artifacts of this kind known from south africa or anywhere else in africa.
The new pnas study led by villa also indicates big changes were occurring in hunting technology during the later stone age at border cave, said villa. they included a shift from spears hafted with stone points -- the main hunting weapon in the middle stone age -- to the likely use of the bow and arrow, a technology that included very thin bone points that probably were tipped with poison, she said.
Using the same lidar technology used to uncover ancient mayan cities, students have found a lost city in south africa that flourished in the 15th century. using the same laser technology that has revealed ancient mayan cities in mesoamerica, students from the university of
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